Appendix 1. Index of Tables
1 Polymers, Meta Sites
2 Polymers, Databases
3 Polymers, Materials Selection
4 Polymers, Specific Sites
5 Composites, Meta Sites
6 Aluminium, Databases
7 Steels, Meta Sites
8 Steels, Databases
9 Steels, Online Data
10 Ferrous and Nonferrous Alloys, Databases and Technical Reference Guides
11 Ceramic Materials Data
12 Databases with Different Types of Material Groups
13 Databases in Chemical Thermodynamics
14 Bibliographic and Literature Reference Databases
Appendix 2. Databases with different types of materials
Table 12. DATABASES WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATERIALS
|ASMDATA||STN International||composites, plastics,|
ferrous and nonferrous
alloys, and metals
electric and processing
|Granta Design, Ltd||ceramics, metals, polymers, elastomers and composites||mechanical, thermal|
|on PC or network|
adhesives and rubbers
|Institute of Inorganic|
Russian Academy of
|Numerical data on|
and selected physical
(online), corrosion data
for various materials
|VULCAIN BdM||Centré technique de|
l’industrie du décolletage
|various materials||Mechanical and machining|
chemical composition, mechanical and physical
ASMDATA is a numeric property file from ASM International that contains material
identification and composition, properties, and specifications for composites,
plastics, ferrous and nonferrous alloys, and metals. It covers mechanical,
electrical, magnetic, physical, and processing property information sourced from
manufacturer’s and handbook material data. The file is reloaded annually. It is
provided online by STN International.
ASM International, formerly the American Society for Metals, collects and
reviews material property data for publication in books, reports and electronic
American Society for Testing and Materials. The ASTM technical standards
(specifications, tests, practices, guides, and definitions) are available in
printed form or on CD-ROM, for which free demo versions of some of the products
can be ordered. Online there is a search for individual standards.
The Cambridge Materials Selector (CMS)
This is a Windows based PC toolkit for the evaluation and selection of materials
for engineering design. It was developed at Cambridge University. CMS uses an
extensive suite of databases containing the mechanical, thermal and electrical
properties of a wide range of materials including ceramics, metals, polymers,
elastomers and composites. Property data is presented in a graphical format to
provide a series of material selection charts which, when combined with the use of
performance indexes, enable identification of the optimum materials for a specific
The product is purchased through Granta Design Ltd. At their website one can
find more detailed information on how this product works, and also some case
studies in materials selection.
CenTOR Corporation (former Information Indexing) develops and markets CD-ROM and
Internet based information tools for engineers and scientific industry.
CenBASE/Materials on CD-ROM is an electronic compilation of commercially
available grades of plastics, metals, ceramics, composites, adhesives and rubbers
sourced from over 300 manufacturers catalogs worldwide since 1984. It can be used
for materials selection, materials research, vendor selection and materials
engineering education. It is updated every three months and also available on WWW.
A free trial is provided.
Electronic Materials Data Bank
Maintained at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, (IInC) a subdivision of the
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The data bank files contain numerical data on the thermodynamics, structure
and selected physical properties of semiconductor and related materials.
During the period 1994-96 the main activity was focused on modernization of
software and network capability of the data bank. Activity on updating of DB files
was slightly decreased due to absence of necessary financial support.
Everything developed in IInC can be transferred without difficulty on any
modern computer platform. The data bank is designed in form suitable to be used via
network. Access to their host computers from outside is somewhat difficult and slow.
The situation may be improved in the near future with the help of satellite
connection. As an half way solution the Institue is discussing installation of
mirror of DB in Sendai.
The MRS Internet Journal of Nitride Semiconductor Research contains published
articles in full text and nitride news.
Materials for environment-technology (Flue gas desulphurization)
Property and corrosion data, comparisons, recommendations and environmental laws
concerning materials and components, flue gases and noxious materials. IMA
Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik.
Materials Object-Oriented Database is a research project where the researchers
attempt to provide database services for non-standard material data; material data
accumulated in the process of materials scientific research and in the material
development process. Conventional database systems are not suitable for the
processing of such kind of irregular data. Because of the varieties in the contents
of raw material data as such, the compilation of them has been possible only in
terms of science and technology reports but difficult to computerize. This problem is
shared among medicine, biology, chemistry and any other disciplines of science and
technology where the accumulation of observations and experimental results matters.
MOOD-SX is a solution to this problem. On the homepage for the MOOD project this
multiuser, client/server database system program is available for UNIX. There is also
a PC/MS-DOS prototype. There is an Experimental Public Material Database Service
with MOOD-SX as well.
A node with collected pointers to material database related subjects and
organizations is also worth checking out.
MSC The MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation
A provider of finite element analysis products and solutions to the computer-aided
engineering (CAE) market. Their principal product MSC/NASTRAN is used to analyze
the dynamic response and strength characteristics of structures.
MSC/MVISION provides materials information for predictive engineering in
evaluating new designs and materials. It integrates internal materials test
information and materials data from other technical sources. MSC/MVISION databanks
include: ASM Structural Steels Databank and Stainless Steels Databank, Plastics
Design Library Databanks; Chemical Compatibility of Plastics and Effect of Creep,
a Materials Selector Library, MIL-Handbooks 5 & 17; aerospace metal alloys
respective polymer matrix composites, PMC-90 Advanced Polymer-Matrix Composites
Databank; maintained by the University of Dayton Research Institute, Producer's
Databanks; based on Centor Corporation's CenBASE/Materials 3Q95 CD, compiled from
product literature such as manufacturer's information sheets, GE Plastics Databank;
based on the GE Plastics Engineering Design Database (EED), Engineering Resin
Information System (ERIS) and other internal GE Plastics data. No data is directly
available on the WWW.
FEA (finite element analysis) is increasingly used during the conceptual design
process rather than just for post-design verifications. Recent improvements in
interactive graphics for data preparation and displaying the results have made the
technology much more accessible. Together with these design analysis tools come
integrated material database programs. To assist with the selection of material in
evaluating new designs, databases must ensure consistent data. Cycle time is
reduced by integrating the data directly into the computer aided design.
NIST Standard Reference Data Program
National Institute of Standards & Technology. The NIST Standard Reference Data
Program consists of electronic databases covering among other subjects; materials
properties, surface data, and thermodynamics and thermochemistry. The materials
program provides evaluated data on phase equilibria, structure and characterization,
and performance properties. Corrosion data (in conjunction with NACE International)
and tribology data have been evaluated, and several databases produced by these
programs have gained wide acceptance.
The NIST WWW High Temperature Superconductors database (WebHTS) provides
evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxide
superconductors. The range of materials covers the major series of compounds
derived from the Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-O, and La-Cu-O chemical
families, along with other variants of the cuprate and bismuthate materials that
are known to have superconducting phases.
Centré technique de l’industrie du décolletage. Database on materials, their
mechanical and machining properties. Designations, chemical composition, mechanical
and physical characteristics, thermal treatments, corrosion resistance, application
examples, etc. This database has approximately 22 000 references. A materials
selection program is included. In French. It can be accessed via Internet on
Appendix 3. Material information systems - in Europe
Here is a closer description of a few European materials information systems that
have been found interesting. They are examples of good initiatives for useful,
cast metals database
MatWeb, materials & corrosion
materials selection database
Webelements, the periodic table
cast metals database
Goodwin Steel Castings, Ltd.
The material database includes also carbon and alloy steels, and heat resisting
steels. The main part of the database is not reachable or completed though. It is
very likely to believe that it is under development. The database is aimed for
material selection with regard to corrosion, for corrosive and elevated temperature
applications. Corrosion resistance with regard to sea water, acids and alkalis, as
well as general corrosion resistance and limitations are accounted for. NACE
requirements are also included. Properties included are ultimate tensile strength,
yield, and elongation, plus the physical properties melting range and density.
The Material Selection-part of the database gives suitable alloys for different
corrosion types (although only general corrosion is present for the moment) or
corrosive environments at varying ranges of concentration and temperature.
Source documents for the data include i.a. (only verified for nickel alloys):
* A practical guide to high-temperature alloys, Peter Elliott, NiDi Technical
Series No 10 056.
* Product Handbook, INCO Alloys International.
* Material Fact Sheets, CTi.
* Literature from Henry Wiggin & Company Ltd.
Goodwin's experience in the alloys in form of production and supply history is
Access to the database is free. It is pointed out especially that the details in
the database are given as general information only, and that specific parameters may
vary the validity of the information.
MatWeb, the METALogic N.V. on-line materials information system
Materials include: Irons and Steels; cast irons and steels, carbon and low-alloy
steels, Stainless Steels (all sorts including precipitation-hardening, duplex and
super), Nickel and Nickel-base Alloys, Copper and Copper Alloys, Aluminium and
Aluminium Alloys, Titanium, Zinc, Magnesium, Lead and Lead Alloys, Tantalum,
Zirconium, and Precious (noble) Metals. Non-metallic materials include: Plastics,
Rubbers & Elastomers, Glass, Carbon & Graphite, Ceramics, Brick, Cement & Concrete,
As an example of the information supply I here give some notes.
For different sorts of stainless steels: General info (short); basics on
composition, usage of group, comparison of corrosion properties with competetive
groups. Usage of different types or grades inside the group, influence of alloying
elements. Heat treatment. Mechanical properties; approximate range, effect of e.g.
alloying, heat treatment, and cold working; environmental restraints on strength
in respect of corrosion. Fabrication and Manufacturing. Precautionary notes (for
example on heat treatment and occurrence of metallurgical defects). Family tree,
specific classes, commercial grades or suchlike; compositions, characteristics,
including comparisons with other alloys within "the family", and some applications.
See also; comparable metals or alloys.
The system is built on information on different materials in similar manner as
indicated above. Each material category is coupled with information on corrosion
hazards and performance in various corrosives. Comparisons with other alloys (or
materials) and between types within a group are made as ground for materials
Each corrosion type is described, and further accounted for with sub-headings
like causes & mechanisms, recognition, and protection possibilities. Case histories
are presented in connection with this. These are in my opinion numerous although it
is said to be a limited selection. Case histories describe e.g. appearance of
corrosion attack (with photo), time to failure, environment, cause, and "remedy" in
order to avoid the failure.
Corrosive environments included are: atmosphere, soil, water, steam, acids;
mineral and organic acids, alkalis, salts & salt solutions, solvents and other
organics, gases, food & beverage. For all individual corrosive environments see *.
Part of the service is still under construction and revision, so therefore a number
of documents are not yet complete and reachable.
A fairly great number of plastics including thermoplastics, polyamides, epoxies,
ionomers, thermosets, and polyesters are described (the last three in short notices)
with respect to uses, temperature limitations and chemical resistance. Chemical
resistance properties of thermoplastics are in addition more thoroughly accounted
for. A segment is dedicated to the latest trends within plastics development
mentioning alloy blends (a literature ref. is given) and new thermoplastics.
Corrosion hazards are basically the same for plastics so just one page plus a number
of case histories are disposed to plastics in general. The part "Performance in
various corrosives" includes acids and soil.
Characteristics and typical uses of rubbers & elastomers are described as well
as performance in corrosives including various acids.
The chapter on ceramics is rather short. It has text on silicon carbide and
chemical stoneware including acid brick (chemical composition, physical properties).
This is an experimental service. All material is copyrighted -jointly or solely- by
Elsevier Science Publishers, Krachtwerktuigen, NACE, and METALogic. It is there for
demonstration purposes only and may be removed at any time.
materials selection database
Special Melted Products, Ltd.
Their materials database includes the following alloy types: austenitic stainless
steels, bearing steels, case hardenable steels, high strength alloy steels, maraging
steels, martensitic stainless steels, nickel alloys, nickel base superalloys,
nitridable steels, precipitation hardening steels, and semi-nickel base superalloys.
Mechanical properties covered include 0.2 % proof strength, ultimate tensile
strength, elongation, ROA, and Izod Ft. For selection of material you enter any
selection criteria you require into the boxes representing minimum and max. values
for the properties above and/or composition range. Properties and composition for
any material included in the database are viewed by typing in the name, designation,
or U.N.S. or U.S.A. specification (all or part of a valid designation or
specification). The values received are typical values. Information on predominant
melt route and typical applications is also included. Mass for different sections
can be calculated. The user types in values for specimen diameter and length. As an
alternative one can calculate length or across flats. Conversions between inch and
mm, and between kg and Ibs are also executable.
This is the index of information and
data for each element:
Key data= essential data including symbol, atomic number, atomic weight, group
nr., and CAS registry ID.
Radii= atomic, covalent, van der Waals, metallic, and ionic.
Compounds= properties of some compounds; compounds in various oxidation states
containing the element, melting and boiling point for hydride and b.p. for
fluoride, properties of aqua complexes; reduction potential, hydration enthalpy,
Electronegativities= Pauling, Sanderson, Alfred Rochow, Mulliken-Jaffe, and
absolute. All values are quoted on the Pauling scale apart from absolute values.
Effective nuclear charges= Slater, Clemeti, and Froese-Fischer.
Lattice energies= for Halides, Hydrides, and Oxides. Many fields without data.
Crystal structure= Some info on solid state c. s.; cell dimensions, space group,
transitions, high pressure forms.
Mass absorption coefficients= X-ray diffraction. For different emitters.
Bulk properties= density, molar volume, and velocity of sound. Elastic properties
include Young's modulus, rigidity and bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio. Hardness of
mineral (on a scale from 1 to 10), and Brinell and Vickers hardnesses.
Temperatures= melting point, boiling point, critical temperature, Debye temp.,
Thermal properties= thermal conductivity, coefficient of linear thermal expansion,
enthalpies, fusion vaporization, atomization.
Thermodynamic properties= enthalpy, Gibbs' free energy, enthropy, and CpH
(J/K/mol) for solid and gas.
Optical properties= reflectivity, refractive index.
Electrical & magnetic
properties= electrical resistivity, mass magnetic susceptibility.
Stable isotopes= data include: nominal mass, accurate mass, % natural abundance,
nuclear spin, nuclear magnetic moment, and uses. Graphic isotope pattern.
Radioisotopes= same data as above (not % natural abund.), furthermore half life,
and decay mode and energy.
NMR= data include: relative sensitivity, receptivity, magnetogyric ratio, nuclear
quadrupole moment, frequency.
Electronic configuration= Plot showing the ground state configuration of neutral,
gaseous atoms of the element.
Valence shell radii= Rmax in units pm and AU.
Ionization enthalpies= data for a selected number of the first ionization
enthalpies for each element, plotted against ionization number and for each
individual i. enthalpy nr. against atomic number.
Electron binding energies
Role & Abundances= abundances of the elements in humans (in blood, bone, liver,
muscle, daily dietary intake, total mass of element in average person).
Hazards & Toxicities
Source= geological availability; world production, reserves, main mining areas.
Minerals= geol. sources expressed as existing mineral forms and deposits. Info on
formula, density, hardness, and appearance of minerals.
Abundances= In universe, sun, meteorite, earth's crust, sea water, and
stream. Other data related to a.; residence time, classification, oxidation state.
Each property present has a link to a definition of that property. Informative notes
are included when needed. All properties have graphic representations. There are
three different choices for those; line graph (the property plotted against atomic
number), bar chart or a colour-coded periodic table. The last one uses a colour
palette containing up to 200 shades of red for ranking of the elements.
Literature references are several, but to mention a few; much work is based on
* J. Emsley in The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 1997.
* DR Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC
Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 75th edition, 1994.
Every effort to ensure accuracy of data has been made by the author. He is working
with errors being detected or reported by users. Therefor you are exhorted to use
data at your own risk.
Links to other periodic tables are included.
Back to Main Contents
Sodium carbonate & Bicarbonate
Solvents and other Organics
Organic Acids (general)
Specific chemicals: e.g.